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Moon landing conspiracy theories claim that some or all elements of the Apollo program and the associated Moon landings were hoaxes staged by NASA , possibly with the aid of other organizations.
The most notable claim is that the six crewed landings — were faked and that twelve Apollo astronauts did not actually walk on the Moon. Various groups and individuals have made claims since the mids that NASA and others knowingly misled the public into believing the landings happened, by manufacturing, tampering with, or destroying evidence including photos, telemetry tapes, radio and TV transmissions, and Moon rock samples.
Much third-party evidence for the landings exists, and detailed rebuttals to the hoax claims have been made. The exception is that of Apollo 11 , which has lain on the lunar surface since being blown over by the Lunar Module Ascent Propulsion System. The conspiracy theories have sustained public interest for more than 40 years. The many allegations in Kaysing’s book effectively began discussion of the Moon landings being faked.
Clarke and directed by Stanley Kubrick. Mass media have a terrible impact on people who lack guidance. The three main theories are below. Landing on the Moon was viewed as a national and technological accomplishment that would generate world-wide acclaim.
But going to the Moon would be risky and expensive, as exemplified by President John F. Kennedy famously stating in a speech that the United States chose to go because it was hard.
Hoax theory debunker Phil Plait says in his book Bad Astronomy , [b] that the Soviets — with their own competing Moon program , an extensive intelligence network and a formidable scientific community able to analyze NASA data — would have ‘cried foul’ if the United States tried to fake a Moon landing,  especially since their own program had failed.
Proving a hoax would have been a huge propaganda win for the Soviets. Instead, far from calling the landings a hoax, the third edition — of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia which was translated into English between and by Macmillan Publishers , and was later made available online by TheFreeDictionary. Conspiracist Bart Sibrel responded, incorrectly asserting that, “the Soviets did not have the capability to track deep space craft until late in , immediately after which, the last three Apollo missions were abruptly canceled.
In fact, the Soviets had been sending uncrewed spacecraft to the Moon since ,  and “during , deep space tracking facilities were introduced at IP in Ussuriisk and IP in Evpatoria Crimean Peninsula , while Saturn communication stations were added to IP-3, 4 and 14,”  the latter having a million km 62 million mi range. Also, there was nothing “abrupt” about the Apollo cancellations , which were made for cost-cutting reasons.
These were announced in January and September ,  two full years before the “late ” claimed by Sibrel. Conspiracy theorists claim that NASA faked the landings to avoid humiliation and to ensure that it continued to get funding. Mary Bennett and David Percy claimed in the book Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers , that, with all the known and unknown hazards,  NASA would not risk broadcasting an astronaut getting sick or dying on live television.
The American Patriot Friends Network claimed in that the landings helped the United States government distract public attention from the unpopular Vietnam War , and so crewed landings suddenly ended about the same time that the United States ended its involvement in the war. Many Moon-landing conspiracy theories have been put forward, claiming either that the landings did not happen and that NASA employees have lied, or that the landings did happen but not in the way that has been told.
Conspiracists have focused on perceived gaps or inconsistencies in the historical record of the missions. The foremost idea is that the whole crewed landing program was a hoax from start to end.
Some claim that the technology to send men to the Moon was lacking or that the Van Allen radiation belts , solar flares , solar wind , coronal mass ejections and cosmic rays made such a trip impossible.
Vince Calder and Andrew Johnson, scientists from Argonne National Laboratory , have given detailed answers to conspiracists’ claims on the laboratory’s website. Using the scientific process , any hypothesis that is contradicted by the observable facts may be rejected. The ‘real landing’ hypothesis is a single story since it comes from a single source, but there is no unity in the hoax hypothesis because hoax accounts vary between conspiracists.
According to James Longuski , the conspiracy theories are impossible because of their size and complexity. The conspiracy would have to involve more than , people who worked on the Apollo project for nearly ten years, the 12 men who walked on the Moon, the 6 others who flew with them as command module pilots, and another 6 astronauts who orbited the Moon.
Longuski argues that it would have been much easier to really land on the Moon than to generate such a huge conspiracy to fake the landings. This would have allowed for only a small number of people to actually know the truth about faking the Moon landings.
Moon-landing conspiracists focus heavily on NASA photos. They point to oddities in photos and films taken on the Moon. Photography experts including those unrelated to NASA have replied that the oddities are consistent with what should be expected from a real Moon landing, and are not consistent with tweaked or studio imagery.
Some main arguments and counter-arguments are listed below. In some photos, the crosshairs appear to be behind objects. Conspiracists often use this evidence to suggest that objects were “pasted” over the photographs, and hence obscure the reticle.
Enlargement of a poor-quality scan — both the crosshair and part of the red stripe have “bled out”. David Scott salutes the American flag during the Apollo 15 mission. There are no stars in any of the photos; the Apollo 11 astronauts also stated in post-mission press conferences that they did not remember seeing any stars during Extravehicular activity EVA.
Earth and Mir in June — an example of how sunlight can outshine the stars, making them invisible. It shows the Earth with the correct background of stars. Long-exposure photo 1. In this image, the Earth is lit by moonlight, not sunlight. The angle and color of shadows are inconsistent.
This suggests that artificial lights were used. There are identical backgrounds in photos which, according to their captions, were taken miles apart. This suggests that a painted background was used. The number of photos taken is implausibly high. Up to one photo per 50 seconds. The photos contain artifacts like the two seemingly matching ‘C’s on a rock and on the ground.
These may be labeled studio props. A resident of Perth , Western Australia, a woman named Una Ronald a pseudonym created by the authors of the source  , said that for two or three seconds she saw a Coca-Cola bottle roll across the lower right quadrant of her television screen that was displaying the live broadcast of the Apollo 11 EVA.
She also said that several letters appeared in The West Australian discussing the Coca-Cola bottle incident within ten days of the lunar landing. The book Moon Shot  contains an obviously fake composite photo of Alan Shepard hitting a golf ball on the Moon with another astronaut.
There appear to be “hot spots” in some photos that look like a large spotlight was used in place of the Sun. The more famous edited version. The contrast has been tweaked yielding the “spotlight effect” and a black band has been pasted at the top. The astronauts could not have survived the trip because of exposure to radiation from the Van Allen radiation belt and galactic ambient radiation see radiation poisoning and health threat from cosmic rays.
Some conspiracists have suggested that Starfish Prime a high-altitude nuclear test in formed another intense layer on the Van Allen belt. The Apollo 16 crew could not have survived a big solar flare firing out when they were on their way to the Moon. The flag placed on the surface by the astronauts fluttered despite there being no wind on the Moon.
This suggests that it was filmed on Earth and a breeze caused the flag to flutter. Sibrel said that it may have been caused by indoor fans used to cool the astronauts since their spacesuit cooling systems would have been too heavy on Earth. Cropped photo of Buzz Aldrin saluting the flag the fingers of Aldrin’s right hand can be seen behind his helmet.
Cropped photo taken a few seconds later, Buzz Aldrin’s hand is down, head turned toward the camera, the flag is unchanged. Animation of the two photos, showing that though Armstrong’s camera moved between exposures, the flag is not waving.
Footprints in the Moondust are unexpectedly well preserved, despite the lack of moisture. The alleged Moon landings used either a sound stage or were filmed outside in a remote desert with the astronauts either using harnesses or slow-motion photography to make it look like they were on the Moon. The Lunar Modules made no blast craters or any sign of dust scatter. The second stage of the launch rocket or the Lunar Module ascent stage or both made no visible flame. Apollo 17 LM leaving the Moon; rocket exhaust visible only briefly.
Exhaust flame may not be visible outside the atmosphere, as in this photo. Rocket engines are the dark structures at the bottom center. Note the near-transparency of the exhaust, even in air water is being sprayed up from below. Atlas uses non-hypergolic kerosene RP-1 fuel which gives a bright and very visible exhaust, 1. Bright flame from first stage of the Saturn V , burning RP The Lunar Modules weighed 17 tons and made no mark on the Moondust, yet footprints can be seen beside them.
The air conditioning units that were part of the astronauts’ spacesuits could not have worked in an environment of no atmosphere.
There should have been more than a two-second delay in communications between Earth and the Moon, at a distance of , km , miles. The Parkes Observatory in Australia was billed to the world for weeks as the site that would be relaying communications from the first moonwalk.
However, five hours before transmission they were told to stand down. Parkes supposedly had the clearest video feed from the Moon, but Australian media and all other known sources ran a live feed from the United States. Better signal was supposedly received at Parkes Observatory when the Moon was on the opposite side of the planet. Blueprints and design and development drawings of the machines involved are missing.
David R. Kranz both acknowledged that the original high-quality Apollo 11 telemetry data tapes are missing. Conspiracists see this as evidence that they never existed. To broadcast the pictures to regular television, a scan conversion had to be done. The radio telescope at Parkes Observatory in Australia was able to receive the telemetry from the Moon at the time of the Apollo 11 moonwalk. This direct TV signal, along with telemetry data, was recorded onto one-inch fourteen-track analog tape at Parkes.
The original SSTV transmission had better detail and contrast than the scan-converted pictures, and it is this original tape that is missing. However, still photos of the original SSTV image are available see photos. About fifteen minutes of it were filmed by an amateur 8 mm film camera and these are also available. At least some of the telemetry tapes from the ALSEP scientific experiments left on the Moon which ran until still exist, according to Dr.
Copies of those tapes have been found.
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