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Тот протянул руку, взял Танкадо за запястье, поддерживая остававшуюся на весу руку умирающего. Танкадо посмотрел вверх, на свои пальцы, на кольцо, а затем, умоляюще, – на тучного господина. Это была предсмертная мольба. Энсей Танкадо незаметно кивнул, словно говоря:. И тут же весь обмяк.


Wikisource – Wikipedia.Installers QuarkXPress | Quark Software, Inc.


Wikisource is an online digital library of free-content textual sources on a wiki , operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project each instance usually representing a different language ; multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project’s aim is to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations.

The project officially began on November 24, under the name Project Sourceberg , a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name. The project holds works that are either in the public domain or freely licensed ; professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of other digital libraries.

Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, which ensures the reliability and accuracy of the project’s texts. Some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.

While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, from comics to film to audio books. Some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. The project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is also cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. As of August , there are Wikisource subdomains active for 72 languages [1] comprising a total of 5,, articles and 2, recently active editors.

The original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing primary evidence and original source texts, and as an archive in its own right. The collection was initially focused on important historical and cultural material, distinguishing it from other digital archives such as Project Gutenberg. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages a play on words for Project Gutenberg.

In , there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary-source materials, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this. In describing the proposed project, user The Cunctator said, “It would be to Project Gutenberg what Wikipedia is to Nupedia ,” [5] soon clarifying the statement with “we don’t want to try to duplicate Project Gutenberg’s efforts; rather, we want to complement them.

Perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG. We’d want to complement Project Gutenberg–how, exactly? It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone — I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, which is whatever we want it to be. The project began its activity at ps.

The contributors understood the “PS” subdomain to mean either “primary sources” or Project Sourceberg. Project Sourceberg officially launched on November 24, when it received its own temporary URL, at sources. A vote on the project’s name changed it to Wikisource on December 6, Since Wikisource was initially called “Project Sourceberg”, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg. Finally, for both legal and technical reasons—because the picture’s license was inappropriate for a Wikimedia Foundation logo and because a photo cannot scale properly—a stylized vector iceberg inspired by the original picture was mandated to serve as the project’s logo.

The first prominent use of Wikisource’s slogan— The Free Library —was at the project’s multilingual portal , when it was redesigned based upon the Wikipedia portal on August 27, , historical version. Clicking on the portal’s central images the iceberg logo in the center and the “Wikisource” heading at the top of the page links to a list of translations for Wikisource and The Free Library in 60 languages.

A MediaWiki extension called ProofreadPage was developed for Wikisource by developer ThomasV to improve the vetting of transcriptions by the project. This displays pages of scanned works side by side with the text relating to that page, allowing the text to be proofread and its accuracy later verified independently by any other editor. This system assists editors in ensuring the accuracy of texts on Wikisource.

The original page scans of completed works remain available to any user so that errors may be corrected later and readers may check texts against the originals. ProofreadPage also allows greater participation, since access to a physical copy of the original work is not necessary to be able to contribute to the project once images have been uploaded. Thus it enhances the project’s commitment to the Wikimedia principle that anyone can contribute.

ThomasV built other tools as well: when the choice of whether publishing annotations or not was discussed, he made a gadget to offer the choice between texts alone or annotated texts.

When the choice of modernizing or not the texts was discussed, he made another gadget to modernize the original text only when it was wished, so that it could be decided then that the texts themselves would be the original ones.

Within two weeks of the project’s official start at sources. On January 4, , Wikisource welcomed its th registered user.

In early July, the number of articles exceeded 2,, and more than users had registered. On April 30, , there were registered users including 18 administrators and almost 19, articles. The project passed its 96,th edit that same day.

On November 27, , the English Wikisource passed 20, text-units in its third month of existence, already holding more texts than did the entire project in April before the move to language subdomains.

But counting was difficult because what constitutes a text-unit could not be clearly defined. On May 10, , the first Wikisource Portal was created. Wikisource collects and stores in digital format previously published texts; including novels, non-fiction works, letters, speeches, constitutional and historical documents, laws and a range of other documents.

In addition to texts, Wikisource hosts material such as comics, films, recordings and spoken-word works. A scanned source is preferred on many Wikisources and required on some. Most Wikisources will, however, accept works transcribed from offline sources or acquired from other digital libraries. The legal requirement for works to be licensed or free of copyright remains constant.

The only original pieces accepted by Wikisource are annotations and translations. On Wikisource, the annotations are supplementary to the original text, which remains the primary objective of the project. By contrast, on Wikibooks the annotations are primary, with the original text as only a reference or supplement, if present at all.

A significant translation on the English Wikisource is the Wiki Bible project, intended to create a new, “laissez-faire translation” of The Bible. A separate Hebrew version of Wikisource he. The need for a language-specific Hebrew website derived from the difficulty of typing and editing Hebrew texts in a left-to-right environment Hebrew is written right-to-left. In the ensuing months, contributors in other languages including German requested their own wikis, but a December vote on the creation of separate language domains was inconclusive.

Finally, a second vote that ended May 12, , supported the adoption of separate language subdomains at Wikisource by a large margin, allowing each language to host its texts on its own wiki. An initial wave of 14 languages was set up by Brion Vibber on August 23, At this point the Wikisource community, through a mass project of manually sorting thousands of pages and categories by language, prepared for a second wave of page imports to local wikis.

On September 11, , the wikisource. Languages without subdomains are locally incubated. As of September [update] , languages are hosted locally. As of August , there are wikisource subdomains for 74 languages of which 72 are active and 2 are closed. The top ten Wikisource language projects by mainspace article count: [4].

For a complete list with totals see Wikimedia Statistics: [25]. During the move to language subdomains, the community requested that the main wikisource. The idea of a project-specific coordination wiki, first realized at Wikisource, also took hold in another Wikimedia project, namely at Wikiversity ‘s Beta Wiki. Like wikisource. But unlike Wikisource, its Main Page does not serve as its multilingual portal [27] which is not a wiki page.

Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger has criticised Wikisource, and sister project Wiktionary , because the collaborative nature and technology of these projects means there is no oversight by experts and therefore their content is not reliable.

Bart D. Ehrman , a New Testament scholar and professor of religious studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , has criticised the English Wikisource’s project to create a user-generated translation of the Bible saying “Democratization isn’t necessarily good for scholarship. Fourteen hundred public domain French texts were added to the Wikisource library as a result via upload to the Wikimedia Commons.

The quality of the transcriptions, previously automatically generated by optical character recognition OCR , was expected to be improved by Wikisource’s human proofreaders. In , the English Wikisource received many high-quality scans of documents from the National Archives and Records Administration NARA as part of their efforts “to increase the accessibility and visibility of its holdings.

Many of these documents have been transcribed and proofread by the Wikisource community and are featured as links in the National Archives’ own online catalog. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation project, an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki. For linking to or citing Wikisource, see Wikipedia:Wikisource. Detail of the Wikisource multilingual portal main page. How Wikipedia Works. No Starch Press. ISBN Retrieved 4 October Retrieved Computers Helping People with Special Needs.

English Wikisource. Wikimedia Foundation. Amsterdam University Press. O’Reilly Media, Inc. Retrieved 11 September Wikipedia: The Company and Its Founders. ITespresso in French.

April 8, April 7, Archived from the original on September 29,